Every operator of a hydro-electric dam wants/needs to understand and compute the efficiency of their plant. To compute the efficiency, the two most important variables are; flow rate and reservoir head.

P = ῃpghQ

where P is available power, ῃ is efficiency of the turbine, p is density of water, g is gravitational constant, h is head of water, Q is flow.

The actual determination of h (head) and Q (flow) is much more complex and hence the importance of the sensors.

Hydro-Quebec has tried different sensors for Q and h. They have recently settled on the Paroscientific Models 2200G and 2400A as the sensors of choice.


When reviewing the overall system, the use of Paroscientific transducers have reduced costs, have proven to be more reliable and have allowed them to operate with less equipment. The initial cost of their investment in Paroscienntific transducers has been more than offset by the Paros reliability and functional capability in providing not only very accurate readings, +/- 0.01% FS but also very high resolution, +/- 0.0001%. By ordering the oil filled interface tubing, the actual Paroscientific crystal is protected from the water.


Model 2200G


Model 2400A